American Journal of Business and Operations Research

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2692-2967ISSN (Online) 2770-0216ISSN (Print)

Investor Psychology Perspective: a deep review on Behavioral finance

Ahmed Ibrahim Mokhtar , Saad Metawa

Determining the fair value of financial assets has been a controversial subject since the 1990s, and whether this value depends only on fundamentally calculated pricing models or if there are other psychological factors that affects it. The field of behavioral finance addressed these issues and provided some asset pricing models that incorporate behavioral aspects of decision-making and explained the different heuristics and biases behind these market reactions that lacked fundamental explanation. Behavioral finance is a relatively new paradigm that emerged to try to fill in the gaps in "Modern Finance". Behavioral finance models did not develop specific strategies to beat the market, however, it has highlighted lots of argumentative ideas that have promising directions of further research and analysis that may be very useful in public policy and welfare analysis, as well as in wealth management. In this paper, the author is presenting some of these behavioral finance theories and how they tackle the psychological aspects in investors’ rational and irrational investment decisions.

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Vol. 0 Issue. 1 PP. 08-25, (2019)

A Proposed Framework for Effective Risk Management in Egyptian Sustainable Development Projects

Rania Abdel Ghaffar , Saad Metawa

The area of development has been a sector related to conditions of uncertainty.  Activities within the development sector are exposed to many risks need to be considered considering social, environmental, and economic risks to all stakeholders.  Risks are all events and situations that threaten the undisturbed execution of the project plan. Risk therefore relates to expectations of stakeholders regarding when and how the project will deliver, what the project will deliver and at what cost. Stakeholders would like to gain the maximum benefits and achieve successful results. So, risk must be effectively planned, monitored, and evaluated periodically by the project management team. Therefore, project risks are important factors determining whether the project will be a success or not.  The main aim of this study is to identify the current risk management system adopted in sustainable development projects in Egypt, assess the importance of effective risk management procedure of sustainable development projects in Egypt, Evaluate and analyze the challenges of risk management procedure of sustainable development projects,  Identify ways to reduce negative factors which are critical to the success of the sustainable development projects and develop a framework shows how the risk management procedure could improve the sustainable development project chances of success and Increase its efficiency and effectiveness.

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Vol. 0 Issue. 1 PP. 26-42, (2019)

Study on reasons of Failure of Small and Medium Enterprises: Looking into Egypt case

Hazem Hanbal , Saad Metawa

Globally, Small and Medium Size Enterprises (SMEs) are considered the main contributors to economic activities. In the European Union, SMEs account for around 67 percent of the overall employment by the private sector and were considered the cushion that protected the economy during the recent financial crisis in 2008 [2]. While in the USA, and according to the Small Business Administration and Small Business House, SMEs are responsible for more than half of the private sector non-farm GDP of the nation.  In the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, a recent study by the World Bank revealed that SMEs employ around 40 percent of the workforce in the formal sector (non-agriculture). This number would increase if the informal sector were included. Generally, SMEs are seen as the potential for economic development and a significant source for jobs creation, especially when looking into developing countries. In Egypt, with the declining role of the government being the primary employer until the nineties of last century, and the private sector taking over this role, and the fact that SMEs are the significant portion of the private sector, it is significantly essential to support SMEs for the creation of new jobs, and overall social stability.  Constrains facing SMEs are many and are usually different from those facing large businesses. It is also observed that rates of business failure within SMEs are generally higher than with large corporates. This paper aims to seek to identify the reasons behind the failure of SMEs, with a look into the Egyptian and Middle East situations. 

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Vol. 0 Issue. 1 PP. 43-54, (2019)

A Sustainable Approach for Assessing Safety Management in Subterranean Infrastructure excavation Using Multi-Criteria Decision-Making

Irina V. Pustokhina , Denis A. Pustokhin

Subterranean infrastructure excavation necessitates stringent safety assessment methodologies due to its complex nature. This study addresses this imperative by presenting an integrated framework based on the Decision-Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL) technique. This methodology amalgamates multi-source information fusion and DEMATEL-driven multi-criteria decision-making techniques. The approach evaluates safety parameters within subterranean infrastructure excavation by synthesizing expert insights, on-site measured data, and predefined criteria. Through a systematic construction of judgment matrices, our approach offers a standardized means to assess observed values against established safety benchmarks.  The collaborative synthesis of expert assessments and empirical data not only informs the comprehensive relation matrix, highlighting intricate interdependencies among key factors but also fosters a structured pathway for evaluating safety. This integrated methodology, adaptable across diverse excavation scenarios, equips stakeholders with a holistic understanding of safety factors within subterranean construction. Facilitating informed decision-making, enables the optimization of safety protocols and interventions, thereby enhancing overall safety standards within such critical infrastructure projects.

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Vol. 0 Issue. 1 PP. 55-65, (2019)

A Decision Support Tools Using Multi-Criteria Decision-Making Approach for Financial Performance Analysis in a Competitive Global Economy

Ahmed M. Ali , Ahmed Abdelhafeez Ibrahim

Stakeholders may gauge a company's financial well-being, profitability, and efficiency via a financial performance review. An outline of the main points of evaluating financial performance is given in this abstract. Revenue growth, profitability, liquidity, cash flow, return on investment, debt management, asset efficiency, market value, return on equity, and comparative analysis against industry peers are all the evaluation's financial criteria and metrics. The market value, debt levels, liquidity, profitability, cash flow management, revenue-generating capabilities, and the firm's financial condition may be better understood by looking at these metrics. We proposed a methodology to evaluate the financial performance in the competitive global economy. We gather the criteria to be analyzed. So, we used the concept of multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) to deal with various and conflicting criteria. We compute the weights of the criteria by the mean value. Then, we used the criteria weights as input into the MCDM method. We used the VIKOR method to rank the various companies in this study. We collected ten criteria and 20 companies to be organized. We conducted the sensitivity analysis in two parts and changed the weights of criteria under ten different cases. In the second case, we change the parameter in the VIKOR method with a value between 0.1 and 1. The results of the two cases show the results are stable and the proposed model performs well.

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Vol. 0 Issue. 1 PP. 66-74, (2019)