428 217
Full Length Article
Volume 2 , Issue 1, PP: 08-17 , 2020


NeutroAlgebra is a Generalization of Partial Algebra

Authors Names :   Florentin Smarandache   1 *  

1  Affiliation :  University of New Mexico Math & Science Division 705 Gurley Ave., Gallup, NM 87301, USA

    Email :  fsmarandache@gmail.com

Doi   :  10.5281/zenodo.3707932

Abstract :

In this paper we recall, improve, and extend several definitions, properties and applications of our previous 2019 research referred to NeutroAlgebras and AntiAlgebras (also called NeutroAlgebraic Structures and respectively AntiAlgebraic Structures). 

Let <A> be an item (concept, attribute, idea, proposition, theory, etc.). Through the process of neutrosphication, we split the nonempty space we work on into three regions {two opposite ones corresponding to <A> and <antiA>, and one corresponding to neutral (indeterminate) <neutA> (also denoted <neutroA>) between the opposites}, which may or may not be disjoint – depending on the application, but they are exhaustive (their union equals the whole space). 

A NeutroAlgebra is an algebra which has at least one NeutroOperation or one NeutroAxiom (axiom that is true for some elements, indeterminate for other elements, and false for the other elements).

A Partial Algebra is an algebra that has at least one Partial Operation, and all its Axioms are classical (i.e. axioms true for all elements).

Through a theorem we prove that NeutroAlgebra is a generalization of Partial Algebra, and we give examples of NeutroAlgebras that are not Partial Algebras. We also introduce the NeutroFunction (and NeutroOperation).


Keywords :

neutrosophy , algebra , neutroalgebra , neutroFunction , neutroOperation , neutroAxiom

References :

[1] Florentin Smarandache, Introduction to NeutroAlgebraic Structures and AntiAlgebraic Structures, in Advances of Standard and Nonstandard Neutrosophic Theories, Pons Publishing House Brussels, Belgium, Ch. 6, pp. 240-265, 2019.


[2] Florentin Smarandache, Introduction to NeutroAlgebraic Structures and AntiAlgebraic Structures (revisited), Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, vol. 31, pp. 1-16, 2020. DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.3638232.


[3] Horst Reichel, Structural induction on partial algebras, Akademie-Verlag, 1984.


[4] D. Foulis and M. Bennett. Effect algebras and unsharp quantum logics, Found. Phys., 24(10): 1331–1352, 1994.


[5] Stanley N. Burris and H. P. Sankappanavar, The Horn’s Theory of Boole’s Partial Algebras, The Bulletin of Symbolic Logic, Vol. 19, No. 1, 97-105, 2013.