165 88
Full Length Article
Volume 13 , Issue1, PP: 23-27 , 2021


Introduction to Neutrosophic Genetics

Authors Names :   Florentin Smarandache   1  

1  Affiliation :  University of New Mexico Mathematics, Physical and Natural Science Division 705 Gurley Ave., Gallup, NM 87301, USA

    Email :  smarand@unm.edu

Doi   :  10.5281/zenodo.4314284

Received: Novembre 02, 2020 Accepted: December 04, 2020

Abstract :


Neutrosophic Genetics is the study of genetics using neutrosophic logic, set, probability, statistics, measure and other neutrosophic tools and procedures.

In this paper, based on the Neutrosophic Theory of Evolution (that includes degrees of Evolution, Neutrality (or Indeterminacy), and Involution) – as extension of Darwin’s Theory of Evolution, we show the applicability of neutrosophy in genetics, and we present within the frame of neutrosophic genetics the following concepts: neutrosophic mutation, neutrosophic speciation, and neutrosophic coevolution

Keywords :

Genetics , Mutation , Speciation , Coevolution , Neutrosophic Genetics , Neutrosophic Theory of Evolution , Degrees of Evolution / Neutrality or Indeterminacy / Involution , neutrosophic mutation , neutrosophic speciation , neutrosophic coevolution

References :


[1] National Human Genome Research Institute, https://www.genome.gov. Accessed  12/7/2020.


[2] Collins FS, Drumm ML, Cole JL, Lockwood WK, Vande Woude GF, Iannuzzi MC. "Construction of a general human chromosome jumping library, with application to cystic fibrosis". Science, 235, 1046-1049, 1987.


[3] Gelehrter, Thomas D., Collins, Francis S., Ginsberg, David. "Principles of Medical Genetics", 2nd ed. Baltimore: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 1998.


[4] Oda T, Elkahloun AG, Pike BL, Okajima K, Krantz ID, Genin A, Piccoli DA, Meltzer PS, Spinner NB, Collins FS, Chandrasekharappa SC. "Mutations in the human Jagged 1 gene are responsible for Alagille syndrome". Nat Genet, 16:235-242, 1997.


[5] Rommens JM, Iannuzzi MC, Kerem B, Drumm ML, Melmer G, Dean M, Rozmahel R, Cole JL, Kennedy D, Hidaka N, Zsiga M, Buchwald M, Riordan JR, Tsui L-C, Collins FS. "Identification of the cystic fibrosis gene: chromosome walking and jumping". Science, 245:1059-65, 1989.


[6] Cao K, Graziotto JJ, Blair CD, Mazzulli JR, Erdos MR, Krainc D, Collins FS. "Rapamycin reverses cellular phenotypes and enhances mutant protein clearance in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome cells". Sci Transl Med, 3:89ra58, 2011.


[7] Parker SC, Stitzel ML, Taylor DL, Orozco JM, Erdos MR, Akiyama JA, van Bueren KL, Chines PS, Narisu N; NISC Comparative Sequencing Program, Black BL, Visel A, Pennacchio LA, Collins FS; National Institutes of Health Intramural Sequencing Center Comparative Sequencing Program Authors; NISC Comparative Sequencing Program Authors. "Chromatin stretch enhancer states drive cell-specific gene regulation and harbor human disease risk variants". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 110:17921-17926, 2013.


[8] Collins FS, Metherall JE, Yamakawa J, Pan J, Weissman SM, Forget BG. "A point mutation in the A gamma-globin gene promoter in Greek hereditary persistence of fetal haemoglobin". Nature, 313:325-326, 1985.


[9] Smarandache, Florentin. "Introducing a Theory of Neutrosophic Evolution: Degrees of Evolution, Indeterminacy, and Involution." Progress in Physics, 2 (2017): 130-135. https://digitalrepository.unm.edu/math_fsp/25


[10] Smarandache, Florentin; Andrușa R. Vătuiu. "Evoluție Neutrosofică Umană în Spirală sau Divinul este în Om / Human Neutrosophic Evolution in Spiral or The Divine is in the Man". Romanian – English bilingual edition. Oradea, Romania: Kalendarium, 2019, 266 p.; http://fs.unm.edu/SpiralNeutrosophicEvolution.pdf


[11] Guo, Yanhui; Amira S. Ashour (ed.). "Neutrosophic Set in Medical Image Analysis." Academic Press, 2019, 370 p., https://doi.org/10.1016/C2018-0-01943-X